What are the 5 stages of personality development?

There are various theories of personality development, and the stages of development may vary depending on the theoretical perspective. However, one of the most well-known and widely accepted models of personality development is the Five-Stage Model proposed by psychologist Erik Erikson.

The five stages of Erikson’s personality development model are:

  1. Trust vs. Mistrust (birth to 18 months): The first stage of development is characterized by the development of trust or mistrust in oneself and others. During this stage, infants learn to trust their caregivers as a source of food, security, and comfort.
  2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (18 months to 3 years): In the second stage, children learn to assert their independence and control over their bodies. They develop a sense of autonomy or self-control and begin to understand the difference between right and wrong.
  3. Initiative vs. Guilt (3 to 6 years): In the third stage, children begin to take initiative in their play and activities. They learn to plan and initiate actions, and develop a sense of purpose. However, if their initiative is consistently frustrated, they may develop feelings of guilt.
  4. Industry vs. Inferiority (6 to 12 years): In the fourth stage, children focus on developing skills and learning to master the world around them. They develop a sense of competence, industry, or mastery, or may feel inferior or inadequate.
  5. Identity vs. Role Confusion (adolescence to young adulthood): In the final stage of development, individuals focus on developing a sense of self and personal identity. They explore different roles and values, and make decisions about their beliefs, career, and relationships. Role confusion occurs when an individual struggles to define their identity.

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